Realization of Real-Time Hardware-in-the-Loop for a Liquid Level with Open-loop Ziegler Nichols Technique


  • Muhammad Nizam Kamarudin Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka


Control system, Ziegler Nichols, PID, Water level


This paper presents the realization of a real-time hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) for a liquid level control system. Multifarious controllers that were proposed in the previous literature are constrained within simulation platform. Several advanced control configurations are implemented in the hard-wire platform that incurs complex programming and requires computational burden. These kind of control configurations do not permit the operator to tune the control parameter online. Moreover, the parameters inside the microcontroller are unobservable to the operators. As such, the need to implement a real-time HIL for a liquid level control system worthwhile to the operators. It gives intuitive configuration and user-friendly application to the operators because the tuning process can be implemented in didactic manner. Furthermore, the controller design phase can be conducted with lees programming burden. Implementing the HIL requires three phases. The tank must be calibrated to obtain a linear relationship between the voltage and the water level. Afterward, the open-loop Ziegler Nichols is exploited to tune the parameters of three term Proportional-Integral-Derivative controller. The controller is then implemented in the MATLAB SIMULINK platform in the host computer. The result shows that the proposed real-time configuration guarantees the asymptotic tracking of the demanded water level with only  steady state error.


Ashis Kumar Das, Optimal Design and Analysis of a Chemical Process Control System, International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology, Vol. 6(Issue 1):513-519, Marc 2013.

Jeffrey Hahn, Donna Post Guillen, Thomas Anderson, Process Control Systems in the Chemical Industry: Safety vs. Security, 20th Annual CCPS International Conference, April 2005.

Terzic Edin, Nagarajah Romesh, Alamgir Muhammad, A neural network approach to fluid quantity measurement in dynamic environments, Mechatronics, Vol. 21(no.1):145-155, Feb 2011.

Terzic Edin, Nagarajah Romesh, Alamgir Muhammad. Capacitive sensor-based fluid level measurement in a dynamic environment using neural network, Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 23(no.4):614-619, June 2010.

Terzic Edin, Nagarajah Romesh, Alamgir Muhammad. A Neural Network Approach to Fluid Level Measurement in Dynamic Environments using a Single Capacitive Sensor, Sensors & Transducers Journal, Vol. 114(no.3):41-55, March 2010.

Michael J. McGrath, James F. O’Connor, Sinead Cummins, Implementing a Process Control Strategy for the Food Processing Industry, Journal of Food Engineering, Vol. 35:313-321, 1998.

Mostafa A. Fellani, Aboubaker M. Gabaj, PID Controller Design for Two Tanks Liquid Level Control System using MATLAB, International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Vol. 5(no.3):436-442, June 2015.

T. A. Rahmawati, N. A. Fakhriy, G. N. P. Pratama, A. I. Cahyadi, S. Herdjunanto, A remedy design of PI controller for liquid level control, International Conference on Information and Communications Technology (ICOIACT), pp. 661-666, Yogyakarta, 2018.

Suparoek Kangwanrat, Vittaya Tipsuwannaporn, Arjin Numsomran, Design of PI Controller Using MRAC Techniques for Coupled-Tanks Process, International Conference on Control, Automation and Systems. pp.485-490, Gyeonggi-do Korea, Oct. 27-30, 2010.

P. Gabriel Grace Keerthana, J. Gnanasoundharam, Comparison of PI Controller, Model Reference Adaptive Controller and Fuzzy Logic Controller for Coupled Tank System, Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Vol.9(no.12):1-5, March 2016.

Sumit Kumar, Pooja Nagpal, Comparative Analyisis of P, PI, PID and Fuzzy Logic Controller for Tank Water Level Control System, International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET), Vol.4(Issue.4):1174-1177, April 2017.

P. G. Medewar, R. R. Sonawane, R. K. Munje, Two Tank Non-Interacting Liquid Level Control Comparison using Fuzzy and PSO Controller, National Conference on Emerging Trends in Engineering & Technology, pp:24-31, 2017.

Auwal Shehu Tijjani, Muhammad Auwal Shehu, Ali Mohsen Alsabari, Yusuf A Sambo, Nuradeen Labaran Tanko, Performance Analysis for Coupled - Tank System Liquid Level Control using MPC, PI and PI-plus-Feedforward Control Scheme, Journal of Robotics and Automation, Vol. 1(no. 1):42-53, 2017.

S Md Rozali, M Nizam Kamarudin, MF Rahmat, A Rashid Husain, Asymptotic Tracking Position Control for Nonlinear Systems using Backstepping Technique, Procedia Engineering, Vol. 53: 255-263, 2013.

Muhammad Nizam Kamarudin, Abdul Rashid Husain, Mohamad Noh Ahmad, Zaharuddin Mohamed, Nonlinear Stabilization with Bounded Controller, IEEE 10th Asian Control Conference (ASCC), pp.1-6, May 2015.

M.N. Kamarudin, S.M. Rozali, A.R. Husain, Observer-based Output Feedback Control with Linear Quadratic Performance, Procedia Engineering, Vol. 53, pp. 233-240, 2013.




How to Cite

Kamarudin, M. N. (2018). Realization of Real-Time Hardware-in-the-Loop for a Liquid Level with Open-loop Ziegler Nichols Technique. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Applied Sciences (IJEEAS), 1(2), 47–52. Retrieved from