Development of a Low-Latency Wireless Telemetry System for Monitoring Patients Heart Rates


  • Agbotiname Lucky Imoize Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, University of Lagos, Nigeria
  • Oluwasegun Oluwatobi Orodeji Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, University of Lagos, Nigeria


Wireless Telemetry System, Pulse Oximeter, Latency, Throughput, Patient’s heart rate


Telemetry systems provide a means to monitor the physical state of a machine, human beings, and environmental conditions. The need for a telemetry system arises due to the increasing desire to simultaneously monitor, measure and record critical data of patients located at different locations at optimal cost. Toward this end, a wireless telemetry system was designed and implemented, specially for small-scale medical applications, specifically, for proper monitoring of the heart-rates of mostly elderly patients. In order to enhance the capabilities of the system, an infrared-based pulse Oximeter sensor was designed and integrated into the telemetry system, and this sends the acquired data to an Arduino microcontroller for pre-processing. The controller sends the pre-processed data to a coordinator PC over a ZigBee mesh wireless network, via a graphical user interface (GUI). For seamless transfer of data from source to destination, a source routing algorithm was applied to route the desired data over the proposed ZigBee network. Thus, an optimized source routing algorithm was evolved, and applied to the telemetry system in order to lower the latency of data transmission of the nodes over the wireless network. Finally, the performance of the optimized routing algorithm was compared with the existing source routing algorithm, and the wired telemetry system. Results show that data routing through the wired telemetry has much lower latency among the investigated routing schemes, and the optimized source routing algorithm transmits data with substantial gains in throughput, and achieved average latency about half the latency of the source routing algorithm.

Author Biographies

Agbotiname Lucky Imoize, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, University of Lagos, Nigeria

Lecturer, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, University of Lagos, Nigeria

Oluwasegun Oluwatobi Orodeji, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, University of Lagos, Nigeria

Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, University of Lagos, Nigeria


A. Y. Elagha, A. A. EL-Farra and M. H. K. Shehada, "Design a non-Invasive Pulse Oximeter Device Based on PIC Microcontroller," in IEEE 2019 International Conference on Promising Electronic Technologies (ICPET), Gaza City, Palestine, 23-24 October, 2019.

A. S. Ekhare and U. M. Chaskar, "Design and Development of Low Unit Cost and Longer Battery Life Wireless Pulse Oximetry System," in IEEE 2014 Fourth International Conference on Advances in Computing and Communications, Cochin, India, 27-29 August, 2014.

W. J. Mayo-Wells, "The Origins of Space Telemetry," Technology and Culture - The History of Rocket Technology , vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 499-514, Autumn, 1963.

A. L. Imoize, T. Oyedare, C. G. Ezekafor and S. Shetty, "Deployment of an Energy Efficient Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks Operating in a Resource Constrained Environment," Trans. Networks Communications, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 34-50, 2019.

S. O. Adetona, L. Ahemba and A. L. Imoize, "A Cluster Head Assisted Routing (CHAR) Scheme For Improved Energy Load Balancing In Wireless Sensor Networks," J. Eng. Technol., vol. 9, no. 2, 2018.

A. L. Imoize and A. E. Babajide, "Development of an Infrared-Based Sensor for Finger Movement Detection," Journal of Biomedical Engineering and Medical Imaging, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 29-44, August 2019.

A. L. Imoize, T. Oyedare, M. E. Otuokere and S. Shetty, "Software Intrusion Detection Evaluation System: A Cost-Based Evaluation of Intrusion Detection Capability," Communications and Network, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 211-229, 2018.

S. Adetona, L. Ahemba and A. L. Imoize, "Design and implementation of a low cost experimental testbed for wireless sensor networks," Niger. J. Technol., vol. 37, no. 1, p. 226–232, 2018.

T. Khan, "A noninvasive smart wearable for diaper moister quantification and notification," International Journal of Electrical & Computer Engineering, vol. 9, pp. 2088-8708, 2019.

C. Hofmann, C. Weigand and J. Bernhard, "Wireless medical sensor network with ZigBee," International Journal for world scientific and engineering academy (IJWSEAS) Transactions on Communications, vol. 5, no. 10, pp. 1991-1994, 2006.

Y. Zhou, X. Yang, X. Guo, M. Zhou and L. Wang, "A design of greenhouse monitoring & control system based on ZigBee wireless sensor network," in 2007 IEEE international Conference on Wireless Communications, Netwoorking, and Mobile Computing, Shanghai, China, 21-25 September, 2007.

P. Frehill, D. Chambers and C. Rotariu, "Using ZigBee to integrate medical devices," in IEEE 29th Annual International Conference of the Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, Lyon, France, 22-26 August, 2007.

L. Cao, W. Jiang and Z. Zhang, "Networked wireless meter reading system based on ZigBee technology," in 2008 Chinese Control and Decision Conference, Yantai, Shandong, China, 2-4 July, 2008.

N. Watthanawisuth, T. Lomas, A. Wisitsoraat and A. Tuantranont, "Wireless wearable pulse oximeter for health monitoring using ZigBee wireless sensor network," in IEEE 2010 ECTI International Conference on Electrical Engineering, Electronics, Computer, Telecommunications, and Information Technology, Chiang Mai, Thailand, 19-21 May, 2010.

F. Adochiei, C. Rotariu, R. Ciobotariu and H. Costin, "A wireless low-power pulse oximetry system for patient telemonitoring," in 2011 7th IEEE International Symposium on Advanced Topics in Electrical Engineering (ATEE), Bucharest, Romania, 12-14 May, 2011.

G. Wang, J. Zhang, W. Li, D. Cui and Y. Jing, "A forest fire monitoring system based on GPRS and ZigBee wireless sensor network," in 2010 5th IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications, Taichung, Taiwan, 15-17 June, 2010.

A. H. Primicanta, M. Y. Nayan and M. Awan, "ZigBee-GSM based automatic meter reading system," in 2010 IEEE International Conference on Intelligent and Advanced Systems, Manila, Philippines, 15-17 June, 2010.

A. A. K. Shahid, Y. Javaid, K. Abid, M. Tayyab and A. Ali, "Wireless Telemetry System For 3-Phase Energy Meter Using ZigBee and GSM," Science International Journal, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 4035-4039, 2015.

N. T. S. R. Veettil, "Automatic Energy Meter Reading System Using Zigbee and GSM," International Journal of Engineering Science and Computing, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 1212-1215, 2015.

M. Haefke, S. Mukhopadhyay and H. Ewald, "A Zigbee based smart sensing platform for monitoring environmental parameters," in 2011 IEEE International Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference, Binjiang, China, 10-12 May, 2011.

N. Zulkifli, F. C. Harun and N. Azahar, "Centralized heart rate monitoring telemetry system using ZigBee wireless sensor network," in Proceedings of 2012 IEEE-EMBS International Conference on Biomedical and Health Informatics, Hong Kong, China, 5-7 January, 2012.

N. M. Z. Hashim and M. S. Sizali, "Wireless patient monitoring system," International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), vol. 2, no. 8, pp. 250-255, 2013.

S. K. A. Dunakhe and S. Raigade, "Design and Of ECG Telemetry System Based On Zigbee," International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 339-342, 2015.

Y. Dai and J. Luo, "Design of noninvasive pulse oximeter based on Bluetooth 4.0 BLE," in 2014 Seventh IEEE International Symposium on Computational Intelligence and Design, Hangzhou, China, 13-14 December 2014.

N. Panicker, A. Sukeshkumar and S. M. Stephen, "Patient Monitoring System using GSM and ZigBee Technology," AMSE (Advances in materials science and engineering) Journals 2014 Series: Modelling C, vol. 75, no. 1, pp. 13-21, 2014.

S. S. R. D. Jaiswar, "Wireless Mesh Communication Using ZigBee Technology for Military Applications," International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 1417-1427, 2015.

M. S. A. Kaur, "Design a Low Power Zigbee based smart energy Metering," International Journal of Engineering and Computer Science, vol. 6, no. 9, pp. 22416-22424, 2017.

R. Adiputra, S. Hadiyoso and Y. S. J. Hariyani, "Internet of Things: Low Cost and Wearable SpO2 Device for Health Monitoring," International Journal of Electrical Computer Engineering, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 939-945, 2018.

S. Banerjee, S. Paul, R. Sharma and A. Brahma, "Heartbeat Monitoring Using IoT," in 2018 IEEE 9th Annual Information Technology, Electronics and Mobile Communication Conference (IEMCON), Vancouver, BC, Canada, 1-3 November, 2018.

R. Mamoun, M. E. Hadi, E. Ahmed and O. Adam, "Design of Noninvasive Continuous Glucose Monitoring System," in 2018 IEEE International Conference on Computer, Control, Electrical, and Electronics Engineering (ICCCEEE), Khartoum, Sudan,, 12-14 August, 2018.

M. Merkepci, M. S. Ozyazici and N. Dogru, "Photoplethysmography based instant remote monitoring of non-invasive blood pressure and oxygen saturation by using ZigBee network," Biomedical Research Journal of Medical Sciences, vol. 29, no. 11, pp. 2401-2404, 2018.

M. T. Nagar and A. P. Bhatnagar, "Zigbee on Wireless Sensor Network for patient monitoring and Home Automation Application," International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Trends, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 127-133, 2019.




How to Cite

Imoize, A. L., & Orodeji, O. O. (2020). Development of a Low-Latency Wireless Telemetry System for Monitoring Patients Heart Rates. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Applied Sciences (IJEEAS), 3(2), 61–74. Retrieved from



Mathematics and Applied Science in Electrical Engineering